THE SCIENCE OF HEALTHY EATING

THE SCIENCE OF EATING HEALTHY… AND WHY WE DON’T DO IT

Every Keto nutritionist and Keto guru, including myself, talk about what to eat on a Keto Lifestyle. Instead, in this post, I’d like to discuss why we know we should be eating healthy, and yet we struggle to do that…

Now, the benefits of Keto and amazing weight loss properties are fairly obvious and well known by most of us. You have more energy, your health improves, and your productivity blossoms. Keto also plays an enormous role in maintaining a healthy weight, which means a decreased risk of type-2 diabetes, certain cancers, heart problems, high blood pressure, neurodegenerative diseases, and a host of other health ailments. (Genetics also plays a significant role. I’m not some crazy person who thinks genes don’t matter.)

But if there are so many good reasons for living a Keto Lifestyle and eating eating healthy, why is it so difficult to actually do? To answer that question, we should start by learning why we crave junk food.

Before we talk about how to get started, let’s pause for just a second. If you’re enjoying this article on Keto eating habits, then you’ll probably find my other writing on Keto useful. Each week, I share self-improvement tips, Keto Recipes, the lates info based on proven scientific research and much more on my Blog and will remind you weekly with links to the latest articles straight to your inbox. 

Why We Crave Junk Food

Steven Witherly is a food scientist who has spent the last 20 years studying what makes certain foods more addictive than others. Much of the science that follows is from his excellent report, Why Humans Like Junk Food.

According to Witherly, when you eat tasty food, there are two factors that make the experience pleasurable.

First, there is the sensation of eating the food. This includes what it tastes like (salty, sweet, savoury, etc.), what it smells like, and how it feels in your mouth. This last quality — known as “orosensation” can be particularly important. Food companies will spend millions to discover the most satisfying level of crunch in a potato chip. Food scientists will test for the perfect amount of fizzle in a soda. These elements all combine to create the sensation that your brain associates with a particular food or drink.

The second factor is the actual macronutrient makeup of the food — the blend of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates that it contains. In the case of junk food, food manufacturers are looking for a perfect combination of salt, sugar, and fat that excites your brain and gets you coming back for more.

Here’s how they do it…

How Food Scientists Create Cravings And How This Keeps Us From Eating Healthy

There is a range of factors that scientists and food manufacturers use to make food more addictive.

Dynamic contrast. Dynamic contrast refers to a combination of different sensations in the same food. In the words of Witherly, foods with dynamic contrast have “an edible shell that goes crunch followed by something soft or creamy and full of taste-active compounds. This rule applies to a variety of our favourite food structures — the caramelized top of a creme brulee, a slice of pizza, or an Oreo cookie — the brain finds crunching through something like this very novel and thrilling.”

Salivary response. Salivation is part of the experience of eating food, and the more a food causes you to salivate, the more it will swim throughout your mouth and cover your taste buds. For example, emulsified foods like butter, chocolate, salad dressing, ice cream, and mayonnaise promote a salivary response that helps to lather your taste buds with goodness. This is one reason why many people enjoy foods that have sauces or glazes on them. The result is that foods that promote salivation do a happy little tap dance on your brain and taste better than ones that don’t.

Rapid food meltdown and vanishing caloric density. Foods that rapidly vanish or “melt in your mouth” signal to your brain that you’re not eating as much as you actually are. In other words, these foods literally tell your brain that you’re not full, even though you’re eating a lot of calories.

In his best-selling book, Salt Sugar Fat, author Michael Moss describes a conversation with Witherly that explains vanishing caloric density perfectly…

He zeroed right in on the Cheetos. “This,” Witherly said, “is one of the most marvellously constructed foods on the planet, in terms of pure pleasure.”

“I brought him two shopping bags filled with a variety of chips to taste. He zeroed right in on the Cheetos. “This,” Witherly said, “is one of the most marvellously constructed foods on the planet, in terms of pure pleasure.” He ticked off a dozen attributes of the Cheetos that make the brain say more. But the one he focused on most was the puff’s uncanny ability to melt in the mouth. “It’s called vanishing caloric density,” Witherly said. “If something melts down quickly, your brain thinks that there are no calories in it … you can just keep eating it forever.”

Sensory-specific response. Your brain likes variety. When it comes to food, if you experience the same taste over and over again, then you start to get less pleasure from it. In other words, the sensitivity of that specific sensor will decrease over time. This can happen in just minutes.

Junk foods, however, are designed to avoid this sensory specific response. They provide enough taste to be interesting (your brain doesn’t get tired of eating them), but it’s not so stimulating that your sensory response is dulled. This is why you can swallow an entire bag of potato chips and still be ready to eat another. To your brain, the crunch and sensation of eating Doritos is novel and interesting every time.

Calorie density. Junk foods are designed to convince your brain that it is getting nutrition, but to not fill you up. Receptors in your mouth and stomach tell your brain about the mixture of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in a particular food, and how filling that food is for your body. Junk food provides just enough calories that your brain says, “Yes, this will give you some energy” but not so many calories that you think “That’s enough, I’m full.” The result is that you crave the food to begin with, but it takes quite some time to feel full from it.

Memories of past eating experiences. This is where the psychobiology of junk food really works against you. When you eat something tasty (say, a bag of potato chips), your brain registers that feeling. The next time you see that food, smell that food, or even read about that food, your brain starts to trigger the memories and responses that came when you ate it. These memories can actually cause physical responses like salivation and create the “mouth-watering” craving that you get when thinking about your favourite foods.

These factors all combine to make processed food tasty and desirable to our human brains. When you combine the science behind these foods with the incredible prevalence of food (cheap fast food everywhere), eating healthy becomes very hard to do.

How to Make Eating Healthy Easier

Most people think that building better habits or changing your actions is all about willpower or motivation. But the more I learn, the more I believe that the number one driver of behaviour change is your environment.

Our environment has an incredible ability to shape our behaviour. Nowhere is this truer than with food. 

What we eat on a daily basis is often a result of what we are presented.

Let me share an interesting experiment to show you exactly what I mean…

The Importance of Environment for Healthy Eating

Excerpt from Atomic Habits 

Anne Thorndike is a primary care physician at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Thorndike and her colleagues conducted a six-month study that was published in the American Journal of Public Health.

This study secretly took place in the hospital cafeteria and helped thousands of people develop healthy eating habits without changing their willpower or motivation in the slightest way. Thorndike and her team utilized a concept known as “choice architecture.” Choice architecture is just a fancy word for changing the way the food and drinks are displayed, but, as it turns out, it makes a big difference.

The researchers started by changing the choice architecture of the drinks in the cafeteria. Originally, there were three main refrigerators, all of which were filled with soda. The researchers made sure that water was added to each of those units and also placed baskets of bottled water throughout the room.

The image below depicts what the room looked like before the changes (Figure A) and after the changes (Figure B). The dark boxes indicate areas where bottled water is available.

choice architecture for healthy eating

Image Source: American Journal of Public Health, April 2012.

What happened? Over the next 3 months, the number of soda sales dropped by 11.4%. Meanwhile, bottled water sales increased by 25.8%. Similar adjustments and results were made with food options. Nobody said a word to the visitors who ate at the cafeteria. The researchers simply changed the environment and people naturally followed suit.

Choice architecture is even more important when you’re already stressed, tired, or distracted. If you’re already worn-down, you’re probably not going to go through a lot of effort to cook a healthy dinner or fit in a workout. You’ll grab or do whatever is easiest.

That means that if you take just a little bit of time today to organize your room, your office, your kitchen, and other areas, then that adjustment in choice architecture can guide you toward better choices even when your willpower is fading. 

 How to Stick to a Healthy Eating Habit

Address the Root Problem of Unhealthy Eating

There’s a reason why many people eat as a way to cope with stress. Stress causes certain regions of the brain to release chemicals (specifically, opiates and neuropeptide Y). These chemicals can trigger mechanisms that are similar to the cravings you get from fat and sugar. In other words, when you get stressed, your brain feels the addictive call of fat and sugar and you’re pulled back to junk food.

We all have stressful situations that arise in our lives. We can deal with this in two ways:

Learning to deal with stress in a different way can help you overcome the addictive pull of junk food. This could include simple breathing techniques or a short guided meditation. Or something more physical like exercise or making art. Or,

Find great Keto substitutes that can give you the same or very similar dopamine release and emotional comfort than what junk food would have done. 

How to Say No to Temptation

Learning how to say no is one of the most useful skills you can develop in your quest to eating healthy, especially when it comes to living a healthy life. Research is starting to show that small changes can make it easier for you to say no, resist temptation and stick to healthy eating habits.

In a research study published in the Journal of Consumer Research, 120 students were split into two different groups.

The difference between these two groups was saying “I can’t” compared to “I don’t.”

One group was told that each time they were faced with a temptation, they would tell themselves “I can’t do X.” For example, when tempted with ice cream, they would say, “I can’t eat ice cream.”

When the second group was faced with a temptation, they were told to say “I don’t do X.” For example, when tempted with ice cream, they would say, “I don’t eat ice cream.”

After repeating these phrases, each student answered a set of questions unrelated to the study. Once they finished answering their questions, the students went to hand in their answer sheet, thinking that the study was over. In reality, it was just beginning.

As each student walked out of the room and handed in their answer sheet, they were offered a complimentary treat. The student could choose between a chocolate candy bar or a granola health bar. As the student walked away, the researcher would mark their snack choice on the answer sheet.

The students who told themselves “I can’t eat X” chose to eat the chocolate candy bar 61% of the time. Meanwhile, the students who told themselves “I don’t eat X” chose to eat the chocolate candy bars only 36% of the time. This simple change in terminology significantly improved the odds that each person would make a more healthy food choice.

Why does something so small make such a big difference?

The One Phrase That Will Help You Eat Healthy

Your words help to frame your sense of empowerment and control. Furthermore, the words that you use create a feedback loop in your brain that impacts your future behaviors.

For example, every time you tell yourself “I can’t”, you’re creating a feedback loop that is a reminder of your limitations. This terminology indicates that you’re forcing yourself to do something you don’t want to do.

In comparison, when you tell yourself “I don’t”, you’re creating a feedback loop that reminds you of your control and power over the situation. It’s a phrase that can propel you toward breaking your bad habits and following your good ones while aligning yourself with that future you.

Heidi Grant Halvorson is the director of the Motivation Science Center at Columbia University. Here’s how she explains the difference between saying “I don’t” compared to “I can’t”…

“I don’t” is experienced as a choice, so it feels empowering. It’s an affirmation of your determination and willpower. “I can’t” isn’t a choice. It’s a restriction, it’s being imposed upon you. So thinking “I can’t” undermines your sense of power and personal agency.

“I don’t” is experienced as a choice, so it feels empowering. “I can’t” isn’t a choice. It’s a restriction, it’s being imposed upon you.

In other words, the phrase “I don’t” is a psychologically empowering way to say no, while the phrase “I can’t” is a psychologically draining way to say no.

Perhaps most importantly, a change in language leads to a change in mindset. You can now utilize your new, empowered mindset in all future situations, which is why a subtle shift can lead to very different outcomes over the long-run.

Share on facebook
Facebook
Share on linkedin
LinkedIn
Share on whatsapp
WhatsApp
Share on print
Print

Check out my latest posts and recipes

KETO DINNERS

Keto Casserole Recipes

As soon as the temperatures start dropping, clients start asking for casserole recipes in their meal plans. Here is a roundup of my top Keto go-to Casserole recipes.

Read More »
Keto Macadamia fudge
KETO SNACKS

KETO MACADAMIA FUDGE

This Keto Macadamia Fudge is absolutely divine! Very easy to make and perfectly okay to have if you are feeling like having something sweet without the guilt.

Read More »
Keto Carrot Cake1
KETO DESSERTS

KETO CARROT CAKE

Keto Carrot Cake? Yes! The moment one says carrot cake, people will say “but that’s not keto”. Even though carrots are higher in carbohydrates, this Keto Carrot Cake only contains one cup of grated carrots, and a single serving comes to less than 6 grams of carbs.

Read More »
Keto Granola
KETO BREAKFASTS

HOMEMADE KETO GRANOLA

I like to add protein powder to my granola recipes. It’s not only a great way to add different flavours to the granola, but it adds a little protein to!

Read More »
Ham and Egg Cups
KETO BREAKFASTS

HAM AND EGG CUPS

Delicious and easy ham and egg cups! Make a few varieties by adding any type of vegetables like peppers, broccoli or spinach.

Read More »
Scroll to Top